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Forms of Government
Thursday, June 15, 2006 1:50 PM

Anarchism

Anarchists promote the absence of rules, which leads to the absence of any identifiable social structure beyond that of personal autonomy. When one anarchist defines anarchy other anarchists may feel bound to change it. Anarchism means different things to different believers. Anarchists do not hold common views on subjects. A continuing debate is whether anarchy is an end unto itself or simply the best means to a better government. To all anarchists anarchy is the best refuge from political dogma and authority.

Many anarchists have suffered the bemusing fate of being convicted for breaking laws in which they do not believe. The justice system occasionally protect the anarchist. Anarchism theory that equality and justice are to be sought through the abolition of the state and the substitution of free agreements between individuals. Anarchism's only real mass following was in Latin countries, where its doctrines were often combined with those of syndicalism. After the Haymarket riot in Chicago in 1886 and the assassination of President McKinley in 1901 a law was passed forbidding anarchists to enter the country. The Sacco-Vanzetti case attests to the fear of anarchism in the United States. As an organized movement, anarchism is largely dead, but it retains importance as a philosophical attitude and a political tendency.

 

 

Autocracy

 

Autocracy is a from of government where unlimited political power is held by a single individual. The term autocrat is derived from the Greek word autokratôr. Autocracy and monocracy are considered synonyms by most dictionaries, although the term monocracy is more often used to refer to a form of government ruled by a monarch rather than a single ruler.

 

Democracy

 

 Democracy is a term originating in ancient Greece to designate a government where the people share in directing the activities of the state, as distinct from governments controlled by a single class, select group, or autocrat. The definition of democracy has been expanded.

 

Democracy first flourished in the Greek city-state reaching its fullest expression in ancient Athens. The citizens are members of the assembly and participate directly in the making of their laws. A democracy of this sort was possible only in a small state where the people were politically educated, and it was limited since the majority of inhabitants were slaves or non-citizens. Athenian democracy fell before imperial rule, as did other ancient democracies in the early Italian cities and the early church. In this period and in the middle Ages, ideas such as representation crucial to modern Western democracy were developed. Doctrines of natural law evolved into the idea of natural rights that all people have certain rights. That can’t be taken away from them. The idea of contract followed, that rulers and people were bound to each other by reciprocal obligations. If the sovereign failed in his duties or transgressed on natural rights, the people could take back their sovereignty.

 

 

Oligarchy

 

Oligarchies are often controlled by a few powerful families. Their children are raised and mentored to be heirs of the power of the oligarchy, and it sometime come with some sort of expense to those governed. This power isn’t always practiced in the open. Oligarchy don’t always have to be ruled by the wealthy and can also be ruled by the privileged. By insisting that monarchs or dictators share power they open the door for power sharing and other elements of society.

 

 

Theocracy

 

Theocracy is a form of government in which a religion or faith is the dominant role. The word theocracy originates from the Greek. The government claims to rule on behalf of god or a higher power. There are several nations of varying faiths that have been deemed theocracies. There are a number of parties and movements have been accused of having theocratic aspects. Theocracy can be monist the administrative hierarchy of the government is the same as the administrative religion.

 

 

Tribalism

 

Tribalism is a social system where the society is divided into small groups called tribes. Its named for tribes because tribal societies lacked any organizational level beyond that of the local tribe.  Since the tribes have small groups it is always a simple structure and has few significant social distinctions between the people. As a result of some tribes being egalitarian and most having vague notion of  private property the tribe have also been called primitive communism. Tribalism was the very first social system that human beings ever lived in, and it lasted much longer than any other kind of society to date.